Dictionary Entries explained

Urat headword (bold, blue)

Part of speech (See the Abbreviations page)

Definition (English in black, Tok Pisin in green)

Examples (English in black, Tok Pisin in green)

In many of the definitions there are a number of equivalent English words that can be used to describe the Urat meaning. These are listed separately by commas ending with a semicolon; sometimes, after the semicolon a further explaining phrase is given that serves to expand the definition.

In the first example given above, the Urat word, -aha -ahai'e only has one meaning. Sometimes however, words have multiple meanings. These multiple meanings are called senses and they are indicated in the dictionary by sense numbers. Each sense begins with a number. The various senses in an entry have distinct meanings.

Hints for Finding Words in This Dictionary


  1. Check for the use of the ꞌ (glottal) at the end and middle of words. For example: taꞌe and ŋaꞌ.
  2. Many Urat verbs are made up of a prefix and a stem, for example y-ininge → yininge 'talk'. The prefix is y- and -ininge is the stem. Most verbs that use regular prefixes are listed in this dictionary by the stem. Leave out the first letter, and you will find the verb stem. This means that you will find the verb -ininge in the section on "i". Most verbs have prefixes m-, n-, ŋ-, w-, y-, or ch-, k-. Different prefix letters are used according to who is doing the action.
  3. Verbs starting with g have the prefixes gw-, kw-, g-, j-. These verbs are listed in the dictionary by the g form of the stem. For example, kwertenge can be found as gertenge.
  4. The verbs often have a vowel change from a to i or u for different forms of the verb. To find an entry for a verb, try to think of that word in a 3rd person masculine command, or future (irrealis) form. Some verbs have irregular irrealis (future) forms. These irregular verbs have their own entries in the dictionary.
  5. Consider that we might not have the word in the Urat dictionary!